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High voltage pulse capacitors
The capacitors used in the PCG most often operate in a mode close to a short circuit: an oscillatory discharge to a low inductance at an oscillation frequency of 104 - 107 Hz. The main requirement for a capacitor is to store the maximum possible energy per unit volume. It is determined by the operating voltage (OV), at which the insulation can work and the dielectric constant of the insulation.
The main factors limiting the OV include: - short-term insulation strength of condenser sections; - destruction of the dielectric by partial discharges (PD); - thermal conditions of the condenser.
If the capacitor operates in frequency mode, then the PH is determined by the thermal breakdown of the capacitor. If the thermal regime is not decisive, then the PD in the thickness of the dielectric and at the edges of the sections is the determining factor. For the manufacture of pulse capacitors, dielectrics based on capacitor paper and synthetic films impregnated with a liquid dielectric are used. The permissible operating voltage is determined by the short-term strength of the insulation and the long-term strength or the aging processes of the dielectric in the pulsed mode. The type of dielectric used and the mode of operation of the capacitor are of primary importance. To reduce losses in the capacitor, it is advisable to use the dielectric of the sections with a small tangent of the loss angle at the oscillation frequency in the discharge circuit. Such a dielectric is a film or paper-film dielectric using non-polar polymer films (polypropylene, polyethylene, etc.) and non-polar impregnating compounds (capacitor oil, etc.). The capacitors of high-voltage impulse devices are subject to the requirements of a minimum self-inductance and a minimum volume of the dielectric system. This is necessary so that the connecting conductors do not increase the capacitor's own inductance in the discharge circuit.
The main parameters of high voltage pulse capacitors.
Finding the right high-voltage pulse capacitor for a pulse current generator is sometimes not such an easy task. This requires an understanding of the main characteristics of the capacitor: 1. Capacity. 2. Rated voltage. 3. Energy. 4. Frequency of repetition of discharge pulses. 5. Self-inductance of the capacitor leads. 6. Discharge current. 7. Resource of the condenser.